Original Research

The HEDQUAL scale: A new measurement scale of service quality for MBA programs in higher education

G. E. Icli, N. K. Anil
South African Journal of Business Management | Vol 45, No 3 | a129 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/sajbm.v45i3.129 | © 2018 G. E. Icli, N. K. Anil | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 05 April 2018 | Published: 30 September 2014

About the author(s)

G. E. Icli, FEAS, Kirklareli University, Kirklareli, Turkey
N. K. Anil, FEAS, Kirklareli University, Kirklareli, Turkey

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HEdPERF is the most developed scale in the literature to measure service quality in higher education. However, HEdPERF is designed to measure service quality at university level (macro level) as a generic measurement instrument. Students’ expectations regarding education show differences as levels of education at universities (MBA, PhD) vary. Thus, in order to measure the quality of education at different levels, a new scale is required to meet the needs of that particular level (MBA). The purpose of this study was to develop and validate HEDQUAL, a new measurement scale of service quality specifically designed for MBA programs in the higher education sector.

A 36 item (Turkish) questionnaire on service quality in higher education was developed and tested for unidimensionality, reliability and validity using both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. A total of 317 usable questionnaires were collected with a return rate of 42%. SPSS 15 and LISREL 8 were used and exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were applied. The recommended goodness-of-fit indices of the model were found to be within tolerable ranges, suggesting that the model provides a close fit to the data.

The study identified five factors namely academic quality, administrative service quality, library services quality, quality of providing career opportunities, and supporting services quality as the key dimensions of service quality. This paper uses existing literature on services quality and MBA students’ expectations and needs, and develops an instrument that provides insights into measuring service quality for MBA students in a university.


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